In 2015, nearly all of Vermont’s net electricity generation came from renewable energy, including hydroelectric, biomass, wind, and solar resources. Less than 40% of the electricity consumed in Vermont was produced in state. The rest came from the New England grid and Canada. The 2014 closure of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant reduced Vermont’s overall generating capacity by over half. Vermont enacted the nation’s first integrated renewable energy standard (RES), which makes utilities responsible both for supplying renewable electricity and supporting reductions in fossil fuel use. By 2025 Vermont seeks to have 67% of electricity, 30% of building energy and 10% of transportation energy from renewable sources. Per capita energy consumption is in the lowest quintile nationally. One in six Vermont households uses wood products as the primary heating source.
In the context of New England, Vermont’s electricity pricing remains highly competitive. From 2015 to 2016 commercial and residential rates rose very slightly in Vermont. Most of New England saw a sharper rise, with only Maine seeing rates drop. Vermont’s electricity rates were the 8th highest nationally as of July 2016. Residential, Commercial and Industrial costs per kilowatt hour are approximately double that of the ten states in the bottom quintile of electricity costs.